Ray, Brian D. (2001). The modern homeschooling movement. Catholic Education: A Journal of Inquiry and Practice, 4(3), 405-421. (Defines homeschooling and puts it into historical context. Explains homeschooling is a popular and fast-growing trend in the U.S. and Canada. Provides comprehensive overview of research on the families’ demographic traits, the academic achievement of the children, whether their achievement is correlated with selected variables, the psychological, emotional, and social well-being of the children, civic involvement and leadership of homeschoolers, and adults who were homeschooled. Addresses political and philosophical antagonism toward homeschooling and presents a philosophical and social rationale for homeschooling. Explains contribution of homeschooling to civic welfare. “They were thought of as bizarre, fringe, isolationist, and selfish only 15 years ago (Hadeed, 1991; Knowles & Muchmore, 1995; Mayberry, Knowles, Ray, & Marlow, 1995). Now most Americans know at least one family who does it; and increasingly they are thought of as simply a little different, almost mainstream, thoughtful about how they raise their children, and hardworking as they give up a second income (Kantrowitz & Wingert, 1998; Ray, 1993, 1999). They are homeschoolers” [p. 405].  “As with their demographic characteristics, homeschoolers’ pedagogical practices vary widely. Parents range in their approaches to the education of their children from ones that essentially reproduce conventional classroom schooling at home (Taylor, 1993; Van Galen, 1991), to very structured and workbook-oriented forms, to “lifestyle of learning” (Howshall, 1998) or “relaxed homeschooling” (Hood, 1994) styles which are explicitly based on a biblical understanding of the nature of children, to unschooling which focuses on reuniting living and learning without necessarily focusing on religious worldview (Sheffer, 2000)” [p. 408].) (Descriptors: home education, research, history, academic achievement, philosophy, criticism)

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